Jonathan Bernier and Hubert Samson provided invaluable research assistance. He sampled the river to assess its degree of contamination and found an E. Citizens of Drummondville were upset by the fact that their municipality was required to constantly upgrade its drinking water treatment plant and acquire installations to treat its domestic effluents while cities and industries upstream continued to dump their waste into the river. According to them, the river was one of the few natural attractions in a region whose landscape had been denuded and flattened by nearly two centuries of colonization. Yet certain issues remained unresolved and debated at the local level. The regionalization that the provincial government started to implement from the s on may have facilitated the workings of the Quebec Water Purification Program, since municipalities were now sharing administrative institutions to arbitrate competing interests. Despite the intensive industrial activity around the Saint-Maurice River and the concomitant pollution load, a systematic study of the river and its water was undertaken only in , when the Environmental Protection Services launched the second phase of the Quebec river survey initiated by the Water Board in Its authority was further undermined when municipalities opposed each other or confronted the provincial government, especially over matters concerning the devolution of responsibilities for the source of river contamination and the residual authority to manage the infrastructure needed for decontamination.
GGC, , He has published articles on the relationships between urban societies and riverine environments. Two years after its creation in , the Environmental Protection Services had its budget slashed by the Liberal government, thereby limiting the effectiveness of its interventions against water pollution across the province. As far as the members of the St. One solution to this problem was to bring together municipalities to facilitate the sharing of financial and technical resources. Urban History Review 44, no. Fish and game clubs were still mobilized around issues of river quality and the health of the aquatic wildlife, and continued to press the provincial government to protect rivers and regulate industrial effluents.
The existence of a federal subsidy program that enabled Ontario municipalities to acquire water treatment plants had certainly encouraged the Quebec Liberal government to orient its efforts in that direction.
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Christof Mauch and Thomas Zeller, 41—62 Pittsburgh: After a wave of drilling, it ceased pumping its water from the Saint-Maurice and using chlorine in its water. By identifying, at the local level, multiple representations of pollution phenomena and practices put forward to decontaminate water, we shed light on the difficulties surrounding the implementation of water treatment infrastructure in municipalities across Quebec between and GGC, Unlike these medium-size municipalities, large urban centres had to deal with smaller suburbs, but rarely did they have to negotiate with neighbours of similar size or equivalent political strength.
The algae found its nutrients in discharges from the town of Waterloo and swison from agricultural activities. Following governmental initiatives in andhowever, the terms of the debate drifted away from these concerns, eisode issues surrounding water contamination would be addressed only as a public health problem.
In line with the guidelines of the Water Board, the plan addressed urban municipalities, but at the expense of rural areas.
National and Local Definitions of an Environmen – Urban History Review – Érudit
Conservation of the water resource was one of many sectors wherein an intermediate level of government was needed to overcome ysmaska fragmented approaches in effect up until then. Urban History Review4410— According to them, rural municipalities contributed to the pollution of the Yamaska as much as any urban centre, especially because of agricultural runoff, yamazka little was demanded of them. Maurice River Boom and Driving Company prevented the normal practice of navigation on the river.
Routledge and Keegan Paul, They also erased the advantages offered by access to alternative watercourses for environmental amenities and drinking water supply for populations that discharged their untreated effluents into rivers yet remained unaffected by their deteriorating water quality.
Because of these specificities, the definitions, problems, and challenges of pollution varied according to the scale at which it was considered, and local approaches to water pollution sometimes clashed with the practices that the provincial government attempted to implement across Quebec.
Because yamasak its geographical position on the last portion of the river before it reached the Saint-Lawrence, and because it was the largest urban centre in the drainage basin, the City of Saint-Hyacinthe was notably concerned by the water quality of the Yamaska.
Difficulties in obtaining cooperation among river users became more complex when the provincial government attempted to coordinate its departmental interventions for the integrated management of the Yamaska River. Francis River Effluent Improvement Committee n. Epiosde governmental initiatives appear to have ignored the perception of a nuisance and its acceptability for specific communities, local debates did inform water pollution policies at the provincial level.
Maurice Boating Club in Shawinigan were concerned, the St. However, it ran across an agricultural region that was intensifying its production in the second half of twentieth century. Yet certain issues remained unresolved and debated at the local level.
An Environmental History of the Bow Montreal: Rapport annuel22— The lack of fiscal resources and political will was not the only problem preventing the construction of municipal wastewater treatment facilities.
Its goal was to stimulate the socioeconomic development of large municipalities on any given river basin, and water pollution was only one of several dimensions that river users were required to consider. Three years after the mayoral election of Paul-O.
For example, the Department of Agriculture made the drainage of agricultural land a priority, and runoff actually increased, despite measures by the Department of Lands and Forests, such as the reforestation of riverbanks, to reduce the impact of agricultural activities on the river. While, in previous decades, debates on the industrial or urban origins of river contamination had prevented the identification of liable practices and the implementation of remedial actions, municipalities were now the ones bearing the onus of river pollution.
According to them, the river was one of the few natural attractions in a region whose landscape had been denuded and flattened by nearly two centuries of colonization. The following summer, however, the Committee for the Development, Purification, and Water Protection of the Mauricie, chaired by Vaillancourt, found that water contamination at the Saint-Quentin Island beach reached five times the standards set by the Department of Health.
Maurice Yacht Club had built a marina to accommodate the growing number of outboards. A water body some one hundred kilometres long between La Tuque and Shawinigan, the river was an attraction for the members of the St. Its authority was further undermined when municipalities opposed each other or confronted the provincial government, especially over matters concerning the devolution of responsibilities for the source of river contamination and the residual authority to manage the infrastructure needed for decontamination.
Abstracts Abstract When it created the Water Purification Board inthe Quebec government intended to proceed with a major reorganization of the municipal wastewater treatment and drinking water systems throughout the province. These elements composed the national outlook on water contamination and its solution.
While the two municipalities complained about the poor quality of the water upstream from their intake, they themselves were also responsible for contaminating the Yamaska. Fabien Larochelle, Shawinigan depuis 75 ans — Shawinigan: After the discovery of impurities—crenothrix bacteria—in the wells, the city acknowledged having to abandon this alternative mode of supply and build a new treatment plant to purify the water pumped from the Saint-Maurice.
All these elements shaped the space of contestation and contamination. Furthermore, agricultural waste was not the sole contaminant that governmental policies neglected and that deterred urban municipalities from establishing wastewater treatment facilities.
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He has published articles on the relationships between urban societies and riverine environments. Moreover, manufacturers in light industries such as textile or agri-food production yamasak increased their use of the river for waste disposal.
One solution to this problem epiode to bring together municipalities to facilitate the sharing of financial and technical resources. To justify its interventionism in that domain across Quebec, the provincial government invoked the situation of the Island of Montreal, where the city centre, constantly at odds with the suburbs, had been postponing the building of a wastewater treatment plant, an intervention deemed necessary by the Provincial Health Service since Created to combat water pollution throughout the province inthe Ontario commission primarily targeted domestic sewage waters, and built municipal treatment plants that it initially managed before transferring the responsibility to the municipalities.
Debates on drinking water quality were all the more attenuated by the fair distance that separated the riverine municipalities, as was the need for regional cooperation to coordinate the uses of the Saint-Maurice or to construct wastewater treatment facilities for downstream municipalities.