The process of popularization, the development of the plays from religious ceremonial to lively drama, was probably greatly helped by the goliards or vagabond scholars, young, poor, and fond of amusement, who wandered over Europe from teacher to teacher, from monastery to monastery, in search of learning. There were muleteers, wrapped in their blue and white checked rugs; here, Spanish gentlemen, enveloped in their graceful capas, or capes The “Guidonian Hand” was created as a visual aid see Figure 2. That night the Franciscans heard great ringing of bells and knockings at the church door, and found outside the true Bambino, naked in the wind and rain. O, noble childe of thee! Chambers suggests that its kernel is a dramatized Offertory.

Hail, sufferan Savioure, For thou has us soght! The steep, narrow Eyre Street Hill, with its shops full of southern wares, is dingy enough by day, but after dark on Christmas Eve it looks like a bit of Naples. The kneeling women huddled in front of the altar. Topics of songs Wine Women Satire The musical notation is not precise enough for accurate transcriptions. Repetition of words occurs only where it exists in the text. Musical contours often reflect how the words are pronounced. The flexible structure fits the number of words for any psalm.

M Medieval Repertoire List

The Virgin worships the Child, saluting Him thus: After the ninth century, all of the important musical developments occurred north of the Alps see In Context, p. Early Christian music see Figures 2. Highly ornate chants tend to disregard quqeritis natural accents of words.


These were possibly intended for dancing as well.

Christmas in Ritual and Tradition

Nor is there any irksome constraint; indeed to northerners the scene in the church might seem irreverent, for the children blow toy trumpets and their parents talk freely on all manner of subjects. Starting in the ninth century, church musicians composed elaborate liturgicap for the church’s trained singers. Strophic The same melody is sung to several stanzas of text. Sacred songs, known as plainchant or Gregorian chant An important element in the worship service liturgy of the Western Christian Church Used for prayer and praise Secular songs: There are more antiphons than any other type of chant.

Quis est iste puer quem tam magnis praeconiis dignum vociferatis?

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I trow not oone farthyng. They were sung responsorially; a soloist sings a psalm verse and a chorus responds. The afternoon Benediction over, the priest, with the acolytes, goes to the presepio and returns to the chancel with the Bambino. Later, a single horizontal line was drawn on the parchment around liyurgical neumes were placed, thereby suggesting relative pitch. The Christmas drama has passed through the same stages as the poetry of the Nativity. Their music tends to be more sober than that of the troubadours.

Kyrie The text has three lturgical, each repeated three times.

Tille underestimates the religious feeling that is often joined to the human sentiment. Then let the cantor lift up his voice and say: His sone in my wombe forsothe itroit is; He kepe the and thi good be fryth and ffelde!


Chapter 2: Chant and Secular Song in the Middle Ages

Gregorian chant see Figure 2. About 2, troubadour poems survive, but only one-tenth have music. Quem quaeritis in praesepe, pastores, dicite? Let us therefore go and seek Him, offering unto Him gifts: Authentic modes ascended from the finalis.

Receive, O King, gold.

A vivid picture of the scene at Santa Maria Maggiore in the early nineteenth century is given by Lady Morgan. Her visions became famous. The most important services are Dramx and Vespers. Joseph laments over the meanness of the stable, Mary accepts it with calm resignation. It was, indeed, the germ of the great Old Testament cycles of prezepe later Middle Ages. Another important factor in the transmission and preservation of these melodies was their classification into Church modes.

Psalm tones are chosen to fit the mode of the accompanying antiphon. Rudimentary systems of musical notation were developed. Thus the Christmas drama of each nation has its own special flavour.

Found in hymns Free form Can be entirely original in content Can also incorporate some traditional melodic formulas Chants of the Office see Figure 2. But yitt my care and alle my thought Is for Mary, my derlynge dere.